SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE SPHERE OF WATER TRANSPORT OF UKRAINE
Topicality. Ukraine is a maritime power and has an advantageous geographical position due to its location at the intersection of international transport routes. Water transport is one of the spheres of economic activity that can ensure an increase in the level of competitiveness of Ukraine at the international level, especially in the context of the strengthening of integration processes in the world and European economic systems. However, little attention is paid to the argumentation at the subregional level of the unique competitive advantages of water transport and effective relationships between all stakeholders in this area. The analysis of the literature indicates a sufficient theoretical substantiation of various issues of providing water transport in Ukraine, but they need to be clarified taking into account the peculiarities of the present.
Aim and tasks. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the scientific approach to achieving competitive advantages in the field of water transport by determining the empirical and theoretical foundations and competitive advantages of water transport in Ukraine in modern conditions of development.
Research results. It has been established that various scientists distinguish three main approaches to understanding the concept of “competitive advantage”: comparative, resource and value-competence. However, taking into account the peculiarities of the activity and development of water transport, in order to study its competitive advantages, the author proposes to consider its competitive advantages from the standpoint of the created value, in particular: as a unique or prevailing property (excellent qualities or special properties that are of increased value for the consumer), as the success of administration (cost reduction for organizational and managerial success), as competence (collective knowledge for a unique implementation), as a value chain (created benefits of a diverse nature). Therefore, the competitive advantage of water transport should be understood as the exclusive value that the sphere possesses and which gives it advantages over competitive countries at the subregional level. Taking into account the scale and hierarchy of the origin of the competitive advantages of the studied area, it was determined that they are influenced by a number of factors, the main of which are the national development strategies of Ukraine, the level of competitiveness of water transport enterprises and the degree of integration of domestic water transport into the world space. On the basis of studies of the volumes of formation of the surplus value of the structural indicators of the GDP of the countries of the European Union, the need to increase the competitive advantages of the water transport of Ukraine, which should be significant, visible, stable, unique and profitable, is economically substantiated. By the nature of the factor of influence, the authors singled out the geographical, political, economic, organizational and managerial, material and technical, innovation and information, marketing, social, infrastructural competitive advantages of the water transport of Ukraine and indicated the indicators on which they exert the greatest influence.
Conclusion. A scientific approach to achieving competitive advantages in the field of water transport in Ukraine has been substantiated, the main goal of which is to ensure a balanced attraction and use of water transport resources, taking into account national characteristics and the influence of the external environment. The groups of factors and competitive advantages of the water transport of Ukraine have been determined, the achievement of which depends on the possibility and ability of their management, the significance for the water transport sector and the country as a whole, the priority of the implementation of strategic and operational tasks. However, achieving them and keeping them at a high level will make it possible to withstand external factors.
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