THE FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF GREEN GROWTH ECONOMIC TOOLS IMPLEMENTATION


Keywords: green growth, environmentally related taxes, fees and charges, deposit-refund system.

Abstract

Topicality. The increase of anthropogenic impact on the ecological component of the entrepreneurship environment has caused both the threat of irreversible consequences for the natural resources quality and for the very environment of existence, and the critical socio-economic consequences at the macro and micro levels. This led to the including of ecological vector to the economic growth model, the integration of economic and environmental components of economic systems development. To take into account the ecological aspects of economic activity the specific environmental policy with various economic tools is to be developed and implemented.
Aim and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study the current practice of "green" growth economic tools use, scale and directions of their implementation in different countries. The results obtained are important in the theoretical and applied area and can be used for scientific purposes and when implementing the strategy of "green" growth of the Ukrainian economy.
Results. Environmentally related taxes represent about a third of the instruments in the PINE database. The OECD tax bases covered include energy products (including vehicle fuels), motor vehicles and transport services, measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife and fish stocks. In 2016, the highest share of taxes on energy resources takes place in Italy – 2.83% of GDP, transport taxes, and others – in Denmark (1.56% and 0.22% of GDP, respectively). Tradable permits are used to allocate emission or resource exploitation rights. Today more than 100 different tradable permit systems are operating in more than 33 countries. In 2018, the state budget of Ukraine received 2.3 billion UAH of environmental tax (for polluting emissions, discharges and disposal of waste). In general, these revenues account for 0.32% of tax revenues. A more detailed analysis showed that the growth of environmental taxes was accompanied by emission reductions in general. At the same time there is a positive dynamic of the emissions from stationary sources of pollution, while emissions from vehicles decreased significantly, that led to a general negative dynamic.
Conclusion. In Ukraine, there is a discrepancy between the urgent needs of ecological and economic development and the imperfection of the tools and forms of management used, the economic incentives for rational use of nature. The lack of general list of issued (re-issued) emission permits results in the loss of control over the volume of emissions. In developed countries, the environmental regulation economic tools' stimulating importance for the development of economy and entrepreneurship is growing. They that help ensure the correspondence between production price and natural resources costs, the reimbursement of expenses caused by damage to the environment, compensation of environmental damage by the direct pollutant.

Author Biographies

V.M. KRYKUNOVA

Ph. D., Economics, Associate professor
Kherson State Agrarian University
Stritenska St., 23, Kherson, Ukraine, 73006

H.V. ZHOSAN

Ph. D., Economics
Kherson State Agrarian University
Stritenska St., 23, Kherson, Ukraine, 73006

References

1. Galushkina T. P. (2011) Formuvannya insty`tutu ekologichny`x podatkiv [Formation of the Institute of Environmental Taxes]. Economic innovators. – Odesa : Institute of Market Problems and Economic and Environmental Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, №44, pp. 57-65 URL: http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/66973/07-Galushkina.pdf?sequence=1 [in Ukrainian].
2. Yevropejs`ka sy`stema torgivli vy`ky`damy` ta perspekty`vy` vprovadzhennya sy`stemy` torgivli vy`ky`damy` v Ukrayini. Anality`chny`j dokument [European emissions trading system and prospects for implementing the Emissions Trading System in Ukraine. Analytical Paper]. Expert Advisory Center "Legal Analyst" URL: http://www.rac.org.ua/uploads/content/449/files/webetsinukraine2018ualayout.pdf [in Ukrainian].
3. Zvit pro vy`konannya Derzhavnogo byudzhetu Ukrayiny` za 2017 rik. Rozdil 1 Doxody` [Report on implementation of the State Budget of Ukraine for 2017. Section 1 Revenues]: URL: https://www.treasury.gov.ua/ua/file-storage/richniy-zvit-pro-vikonannya-derzhavnogo-byudzhetu-ukraini-za-2017-rik [in Ukrainian].
4. Zvit pro vy`konannya Derzhavnogo byudzhetu Ukrayiny` za 2018 rik. Rozdil 1 Doxody` [Report on implementation of the State Budget of Ukraine for 2017. Section 1 Revenues]: URL: https://www.treasury.gov.ua/ua/file-storage/richnij-zvit-pro-vikonannya-derzhavnogo-byudzhetu-ukrayini- za-2018-rik [in Ukrainian].
5. Zvit pro rezul`taty` audy`tu efekty`vnosti vy`konannya povnovazhen` organamy` derzhavnoyi vlady` v chasty`ni kontrolyu za povnotoyu i svoyechasnistyu nadxodzhennya ekologichnogo podatku z vy`ky`div u atmosferne povitrya ta sky`div u vodni ob'yekty` [Report on the results of the audit of the effectiveness of the exercise of powers by public authorities in terms of monitoring the completeness and timeliness of the receipt of environmental taxes on emissions into the air and discharges into water bodies]: / Accounting Chamber. Kyiv, 2018. URL: http://www.ac-rada.gov.ua/doccatalog/document/16756304/Zvit_10-3_2018.pdf?subportal=main [in Ukrainian].
6. Kurs na zelene zrostannya [Course on green growth] // The brochure was prepared for the OECD Council Meeting at the Ministerial level, May 25-26, 2011, Paris. URL: https://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/48634082.pdf [in Ukrainian].
7. Rogov G. K. (2012) Efekty`vnist` sty`mulyuyuchoyi funkciyi ekologichnogo podatku [Efficiency of the stimulating function of ecological tax]. Journal of Economic Reforms. №4. URL: www.nbuv.gov.ua [in Ukrainian].
8. Sakal` O.V. Instrumenty` finansovo-ekonomichnogo regulyuvannya pry`rodokory`stuvannya v umovax pogly`blennya insty`tucional`ny`x transformacij [Instruments of financial and economic regulation of natural resources in conditions of deepening of institutional transformations]: URL: www.economyandsociety.in.ua/journal/13_ukr/157.pdf [in Ukrainian].
9. Salatyuk N. M. Zarubizhny`j dosvid regulyuvannya pry`rodokory`stuvannya ta oxorony` navkoly`shn`ogo seredovy`shha [Foreign experience in the regulation of nature use and environmental protection]: URL: dspace.nuft.edu.ua [in Ukrainian].
10. Stavka ekopodatku za vy`ky`dy` dvooky`su vuglecyu u 2019 roci zbil`shy`t`sya u ponad 24 razy` [The ecological tax rate for carbon dioxide emissions in 2019 will increase by more than 24 times]: URL: https://www.medoc.ua/uk/blog/stavka-ekopodatku-za-vikidi-dvookisu-vuglecju-u-2019-roci-zbilshitsja-u-ponad-24-razi [in Ukrainian].
11. Staty`sty`chny`j shhorichny`k Ukrayiny` 2014 [Statistical Yearbook of Ukraine]: / State Statistics Service of Ukraine. – URL: http://ukrstat.gov.ua [in Ukrainian].
12. Staty`sty`chny`j shhorichny`k Ukrayiny` 2017 [Statistical Yearbook of Ukraine]: / State Statistics Service of Ukraine. – URL: http://ukrstat.gov.ua [in Ukrainian].
13. Termin «ekologichny`j podatok» [The term "environmental tax"]: URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/term/8041 [in Ukrainian].
14. Environmentally related tax revenue [Electronic resource] / OECR.Stat URL: https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=ENV_ENVPOLICY
15. Policy Instruments for the Environment November [Electronic resource] 2017 URL: http://oe.cd/pine
16. A Framework for Assessing Green Growth Policies [Electronic resource] // OECD Economics Department Working Paper, No. 685 (2010): [сайт]. 2010. URL: http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/docs/Temis/0069/Temis-0069034/19090.pdf.
17. Steenblik, R. and J.A. Kim (2009), “Facilitating Trade in Selected Climate Change Mitigation Technologies in the Energy Supply, Buildings, and Industry Sectors” [Electronic resource] // OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers, No. 2009-2, OECD: [сайт]. 2009, Paris. URL: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/trade/facilitating-trade-in-selected-climate-change-mitigation-technologies-in-the-energy-supply-buildings-and-industry-sectors_224036730873
18. Nourry, M. (2008) “Measuring sustainable development: Some empirical evidence for France from eight alternative indicators”, Ecological Economics, 67 (3): 441-456.
19. Randall, A (2008) “Is Australia on a sustainability path? Interpreting the clues », The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 52, pp. 77–95
20. Heal, G. (2005) “Intertemporal Welfare Economics and the Environment”, Handbook of Environmental Economics, Volume 3. Edited by K-G Mäler and J.R. Vincent, Elsevier, Chapter 21, 1105-1145.
Published
2019-09-20