TAX ON THE WITHDRAWAL OF CAPITAL AS A MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE CAPITALIZATION LEVEL OF ENTERPRISES
Topicality. Increasing the level of capitalization of the economy is of strategic importance for Ukraine, since market transformation in Ukraine is inherently capitalization of the economy. All this necessitates further investigation of the mechanisms of capitalization of enterprises, including tax mechanisms.
Aim and tasks. Analyze tax on the withdrawal of capital and experience of its use in Estonia, identify its benefits and potential risks, propose improvements to its legislative support.
Research results. The corporate income tax system is designed in such a way that dividends can be paid even if no profit is received. In the future, these dividends derived from one of the schemes are deposited on offshore accounts. According to conservative estimates of experts of the Institute for Social and Economic Transformation, the losses of the budget of Ukraine from offshore schemes amount to UAH 50-65 billion a year. The chances of tax evasion are great. Large Ukrainian companies, with the help of auditors, can reduce their tax burden from 18% to 3-4%. The main disadvantages of the income tax collection system are the discretion of the administration (the decision-making power of the officials at its discretion) and corruption. Many experts and businessmen see the solution to this problem by replacing the income tax with tax on the withdrawal of capital. This will ensure that business profits are not taxed as long as they are not paid out to the owners in the form of dividends and equivalent payments, that is, they are not taken out of business. Estimates of the negative short-term impact on budget revenues differ. The most optimistic estimates range from 0.5% to 1.2-1.3% of GDP. It is likely that the use of capital deduction will lead to a decrease in tax revenues, but such a sharp fall as the situation in Estonia in Ukraine is not likely to be, since the new tax will be paid by "loss-making" enterprises, and the operations used today for tax evasion will be taxed. Estimates of the negative short-term impact on budget revenues differ. The most optimistic estimates range from 0.5% to 1.2-1.3% of GDP. It is likely that the use of tax on the withdrawal of capital will lead to a decrease in tax revenues, but such a sharp fall as the situation in Estonia in Ukraine is not likely to be, since the new tax will be paid by "loss-making" enterprises, and the operations used today for tax evasion will be taxed.
Analysis of the draft Law of Ukraine on tax on the withdrawal of capital allows to determine a number of proposals for its improvement in the part of enterprises that have accumulated losses in the amount exceeding their own capital or in the amount of UAH 100 million; exemption from tax on interest on the deposit, if they remain on it; defining the norms of the shortage that the enterprise can attribute to the property provided free of charge; deviation of the contractual value of the taxpayer's property upwards or downwards from ordinary prices; the unification of the tax rate on the withdrawal of capital with the tax rate on personal income.
Conclusion. Tax on the withdrawal of capital forms a self-regulating economic system, that is, if dividends are not paid and invested in the development of an enterprise, then production increases, which in turn leads to an increase in value added tax and wage tax. The introduction of this tax will provide a number of positive consequences: growth of business activity, acceleration of modernization of enterprises, redistribution of the tax burden on all taxpayers, reduction of the tax burden; simplification of control and simplification of tax accounting, reduction of methods of tax minimization, shadowing of the economy.
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