THEORETICAL PREREQUISITE OF “GREEN” ECONOMICS INNOVATION PARADIGM FORMATION IN THE SYSTEM OF URBAN TRANSPORT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Topicality. The lack of understanding of the relationship between the state of the environment and the degree of degradation of urban agglomerations leads to an increase in socially necessary costs for the protection, use and restoration of the natural environment and compensation costs in support and quality of the environment, gradual decrease in the quality and quantity of natural assets, the aggravation of developmental problems cities as ecosystems of human life. At the same time, the growth of the economy leads to an increase in environmental pollution. This fact is confirmed by statistical data. Therefore, choosing a sustainable path of development, it is necessary to focus on mechanisms that will contribute to transforming the structure of the economy in such a way that its further development does not endanger the environment and does not diminish the quality of life of the citizens of this country. In this sense, it is advisable to form a new innovation paradigm of the "green economy" in the direction of meeting the objectives set by the goals of sustainable development.
Aim and tasks. The purpose of the paper is to identify and substantiate the prerequisites for the formation of an innovation paradigm of the "green economy", the onset of which should ensure the ecologization of urban transport in the system of its sustainable development.
Research results. The reasons, which are substantiated in the article, are proposed to be solved only by a holistic, global approach. Since qualitative transformations can not do without significant financial resources, the volumes of which are constantly reduced due to the influence of external factors, which also affects the developed countries of the world, the mechanisms that will enable them to get the desired result with minimal investment resources are the foreground. The article emphasizes the creation of acceptable conditions, or at least a departure from the policy of only administrative prohibitions, global control of everything and non-obstruction of the evolutionary development of events within the line of the framework conditions.
Conclusions. The article proposes a substantiated list of basic mechanisms that should be the basis for the operation and development of various urban transport systems. Emphasis is placed on the need for innovative development of transport, which is also expressed in the form of programs and strategies, which are supported by tax, subsidiary, legislative, legal and other preferences. The leading directions of this development are identified, summarized in the form of a list of priority and determinative actions.
2. Bazhal, Yu.M. (1991). Innovatsiina teoriia ekonomichnoi polityki [Innovative theory of economic policy]. Ekonomika radianskoi Ukrainy, 3, C. 11-21 [in Ukrainian].
3. Bazhal, Yu.M. (2000). Innovatsiina teoriia ekonomichnogo rozvytky: M.М. Tugan-Baranovskii, Y. Shumpeter i problemy perekhidnoi ekonomiki Ukrainy [Innovative theory of economic development: M.M. Tugan-Baranovsky, J. Shumpeter and problems of the transition economy of Ukraine]. Naukovi zapyski, 18, pp. 3-7 [in Ukrainian].
4. Bogashko, O.L. (2013). Evoliatsiia teoretychnykh pidkhodiv do innovatsiinogo rozvytku v ekonomichnii naytsi [Evolution of theoretical approaches to innovation in economic science]. Visnyk Berdianskogo universytetu menedzhmentu i biznesu , 2 , pp. 23-29 [in Ukrainian]..
5. Rozhkova, Т.S. (2012). Innovatsiini skladovi ekonomichnogo rozvytku krainy [Innovative components of economic development of the country]. Suchasni pytannia ekonomiky i prava, 1, pp. 41-45 [in Ukrainian].
6. Freeman, C. (1982). The economics of industrial innovation. London : Campus Verlag GmbH, 448 p.
7. Mogylevska, О.Yu., Slobodianyk, А.М., Shtanko, О.І. (2017). Suchasna paradygma rozvytku naukovo-tekhnychnogo potentsialu pidpryemstva promyslovogo kompleksu Ukrainy [Modern paradigm of development of scientific and technical potential of enterprises of the industrial complex of Ukraine]. Ekonomika i suspilstvo, 9, pp. 517-522. Retrieved from: http://www.economyandsociety.in.ua [in Ukrainian].
8. Dopovid pro zelenu transformatsiiu v Ukraine na osnovi pokaznykiv zelenogo zrostannia OESR. Ministerstvo Ekonomichnogo rozvytku i torgivli Ukrainy [Report on Green Transformation in Ukraine based on OECD Green Growth Indicators. Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine], 2016. 60 p. [in English].
9. Tsili stalogo rozvytku: Ukraina [Sustainable Development Goals: Ukraine]. Natsionalna dopovid-2017 : Min. ekonom. rozvytku i torgivli Ukrainy. 176 p. [in Ukrainian].
10. IPCC, 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Mitigation of Climate Change. Chapter 5. Transport and Infrastructure, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Retrieved from: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar4/wg3 [in English].
11. Kamal-Chaoui, L. and Robert, A. Competitive Cities and Climate Change (2009). Robochi dokumenty OESR po regionalnomu rozvytku OECD 2009/2. Dyrektorat po derzhavnomu upravlinniu I terytorialnomu rozvytku, 26 p. [in English].
12. World Urbanisation Prospects : The 2005 Revision. Executive Summary, Fact Sheets, Data Tables. Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2006), 32 p. [in English].
13. Hasan, A., Sadig, A. and Ahmed, S. (2010). Planning for High Density in Low-income Settlements. Four Case Studies from Karachi. Human Settlements Working Paper Series. Urbanization and Emerging Population Issues 3, IIED and YuNFPA, 52 p. [in English].
14. World Urbanisation Prospects. The 2009 Revision (2010). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 56 p. [in English].
15. Chen, H., Jia, B. And Lau, S.S.Y. (2008). Sustainable Urban Form for Chinese Compact Cities: Challenges of a Rapid Urbanized Economy. Habitat International, 32, 1, Pp. 28-40 [in English].
16. Creutzig, F. and He, D. (2009). Climate Change Mitigation and Co-benefits of Feasible Transport Demand Policies in Beijing. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14 Is. 2, Pp. 120-131 [in English].
17. Congestion Charging Central London: Impacts Monitoring (2004). Second Annual Report. Transport for London 227 p. [in English].
18. Beevers S. and Carslaw D. (2005). The Impact of Congestion Charging on Vehicle Emissions in London. Atmospheric Environment, 39, Pp. 1-5 [in English].
19. Goh, M. (2002). Congestion Management and Electronic Road Pricing in Singapore. Journal of Transport Geography, 10: 1. Pp. 29-38 [in English].
20. Rogat J., Hinostroza M. and Ernest K. Promoting Sustainable Transport in Latin America through Mass Transit Technologies. Colloque international Environment et transports dans des contexts differents, Ghardana, Algerie, 16-18 February 2009. Actes, ENP ed. Algeria, Pp. 83-92 [in English].
21. EcoPlan (2002). The Famous Zurich U-Bahn. Retrieved from: http://www.ecoplan.org/politics/general/zurich.htm [in English].
22. Nobis, C. (2006). Car Sharing as Key Contribution to Multimodal and Sustainavle Mobility Behavior: Carsharing in Germany. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Pp. 89-97 [in English].
23. Geroliminis N. and Daganzo C.F. (2005). A Review of Green Logistics Schemes Used in Cities Around the World. UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport: A Volvo Center of Excellence. Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley. 21 p. [in English].
24. Sub-Saharan Africa Refinery Project – Final Report. ICF International (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.unep.org/pcfv/PDF/Final_Executive_Summary_6-08-09.pdf [in English].
25. The EU in the world 2013. A statistical portrait (2012). European Commission. Luxembourg : Publications Office of the EU, Pp. 147 [in English].
26. The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040 (2012). JECD International Energy Agency. France : JECD, 2012. 600 p. [in English].