HUMAN FACTOR IN THE SHIPPING INDUSTRY
This article discusses one of the pressing problems - assessment of human factor in the shipping industry risk management system. A number of practical recommendations to reduce the influence of "human factor" in the safety of navigation is proposed. Advantages, disadvantages and the main problems of competitiveness of Ukrainian sailors on the labor market are disclosed, as well as the prospects and ways to solve this problem are justified.
According to the International Maritime Organization 80% of accidents are caused incorrect actions or lack thereof on the part of sailors. In connection with this assessment of the human factor in the risk management system of shipping companies is essential. Administration does not pay adequate attention to an objective assessment of risks, does not include the impact at the conclusion of contracts, drawing up plans and forecasts, which reduces the quality of management vessel unplanned losses and deterioration of the results of the trip. In addition, a reliable estimate of losses due to human factor complicates the lack of adequate information and special services in the governance structure of the shipping company that provides effective removal of this type of risk.
Thanks to the hard work of the 1.6 million seafarers of the 6.5 billion people of the planet have the opportunity to delivery in necessary quantities of food and energy resources.
Despite the economic downturn and a significant reduction in the demand for shipping services, data suggest that in terms of the relative balance of demand and supply on the common positions of seafarers remains a lack of officers. This is particularly evident in the structure of new types of vessels, for example, tankers and vessels of the offshore segment of the Maritime industry. The world's supply of seafarers in 2015 was estimated at the level of 774 000 officers and 873 500ordinary. This assessment is based on the number of people, possessing the certificates of the STCW.
Results of the survey of companies shows that there are problems with the delivery of certain categories of seafarers, in particular, senior officers, engineers in certain markets. Also it is an evidence of continuing problems in crewing companies, especially in certain segments of the industry.
China returned to the habitual for itself the first position of the ranking with a total number of officers and enlisted personnel in 243635 man, relegating to second place the Philippines (215500 people). The share of the Philippines today have to 13,08% of the total number of seafarers in the world. Number of seafarers of these two countries has increased in each case by more than 20,000 people in comparison with the year 2010.
Ukraine in 2015 was on the sixth place, having passed forward India. The number of the India on the world shipping market the labour force has increased over five years, more than 86,000 people due to, mainly, the rank and file.
For the graduates of the Ukrainian sea universities today is not even worth question, remain serve as a home or be employed on foreign ships. By the number of own ships of the merchant fleet of the Ukraine is only 53 th place in the world, and the Ukrainian sailors are forced to seek work abroad.
Thus, the unbalanced growth of the number of seafarers, that implements the strategy of the adequacy of the level of remuneration of labour is relatively traditionally, the Maritime powers, forms a quantitative, structural and business imbalance segment of seafarers in a global labour market.
A global network of institutions, engaged in staff training in compliance with the international qualification standards regarding operational, commercial and technical shipping safety, are developing and operating.
The prevalence of the reflagging principle with the scope of economic goals causes the necessity of international regulation of this phenomenon. At the same time, the countries with real capital are interested in the optimization of these factors of production conditions, i.e. the competitive quality of Ukrainian sailors' labour.